Resistivity – Electrical Profiling (EP),  Vertical Electric Soundings (VES),  Dipole Electric Soundings (DES), Electrotomography (ET) 

A group of electrical methods which are based on measurements of constant electric field are called resistivity methods or direct current methods. The depth of investigations in resistivity methods depends on the dipole moment (size of AB  x current in AB). In other words, to increase the depth of investigations, it is necessary to increase the current dipole moment. Resistivity methods are subdivided into three groups: electrical sounding, electrical profiling and misse-a-la-masse methods. The area studies with resistivity methods and with application of  2D and 3D inversion are called electrotomography (ET) method. Various modifications of resistivity methods allow to solve a wide range of both engineering and mining exploration tasks. Resistivity methods are mostly effective (“productivity + result” / “cost”) for investigations of shallow cross-sections.